As of January 1, 2019, the population of the European Union (EU) was estimated at nearly 513.5 million, against 512.4 million at the same date the previous year, according to figures released by the European Statistical Office Eurostat on Wednesday.
In the year 2018, more deaths than births were recorded in the EU (5.3 million deaths and 5.0 million births), which means that the natural variation in the population of the EU was negative for a second year in a row.
The growth in population of 1.1 million was therefore as a result of net migration.
Germany, with 83 million residents has the highest population in the EU, followed by France (67 million), the United Kingdom (66.6 million), Italy (60.4 million), Spain (46.9 million) and Poland (38 million).
Malta, Luxembourg, Ireland, Cyprus, Sweden, Slovenia, Belgium, Spain, Holland and the United Kingdom all registered population increases In 2018, while it decreased in Latvia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Lithuania.
Ireland has the highest gross birth rate in the EU, with 12.5 births per 1,000 inhabitants, followed by Sweden (11.4), France (11.3) and the United Kingdom (11), while the lowest birth rates were recorded in Italy (7.3 newborns per 1,000 inhabitants), Spain (7.9), Greece (8.1), Portugal (8.5), Finland (8.6), Bulgaria (8.9) and Croatia (9).
The average birth rate for the EU as a whole 9.7 births per 1,000 inhabitants.
Some 5.3 million deaths were recorded in the EU in 2018, 46,000 more than in the previous year. Ireland was the country with the lowest number of recorded deaths per 1000 people of the population at a rate of 6.4. Ireland was followed by Cyprus (6.6 per 1,000 inhabitants), Luxembourg (7.1), Malta (7.6), The Netherlands (8.9), Spain and Sweden. (both 9.1), while the country with the highest death rate was Bulgaria (15.4), followed by Latvia (15), Lithuania (14.1), Romania (13.5) and Hungary (13.4).
The average number of deaths per thousand inhabitants in the EU as a whole was 10.4, Eurostat said.